Closing Logo Group


The origins of Columbia Pictures Television go back to 1948 when Screen Gems was revived as a television subsidiary by Columbia Pictures Corporation. It was formed when Columbia acquired Pioneer Telefilms, a television commercial company founded in 1947 by Ralph M. Cohn, the son of Columbia Pictures co-founder, Jack Cohn, and the nephew of longtime Columbia Pictures president and co-founder, Harry Cohn. Pioneer Telefilms was renamed to Screen Gems after the acquisition. It was responsible for television production, TV movies, syndicating the Columbia Pictures movie library, and starting in 1958, The Three Stooges shorts starting with the Curly series. Screen Gems became a fully-fledged studio in 1951 by moving into telefilm syndication and later into television production in 1952. On July 1, 1956, Columbia studio veteran Irving Briskin formed Briskin Productions to oversee all of Screen Gems' productions. On December 10 of that year, Screen Gems acquired television syndication company Hygo Television Films (a.k.a. "Serials Inc.") as well as its affiliated company, United Television Films, Inc. Also on August 2, 1957, Screen Gems also syndicated the Universal Horror Package from Universal-International for 10 years called Shock and Son of Shock in 1958 and from 1957-1966, the cartoons by Hanna-Barbera, when Columbia acquired a 20% stake when the studio started. In January 1961, Columbia Pictures Corporation and Screen Gems, Inc. were split into separate companies, when the former studio sold 11% of the latter's stock to the public. On December 23, 1968, Screen Gems merged with its parent Columbia Pictures Corporation and the whole organization was reincorporated as "Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc.". On May 6, 1974, Screen Gems was reincorporated as "Columbia Pictures Television" (now "Sony Pictures Television"). The name was suggested by David Gerber, the then-current president of Columbia's television division. In 1984, Coke demerged Columbia Pictures and Columbia Pictures Television. CPT was transferred to "CPT Holdings, Inc.". On January 30, 1984, CPT joined forces with Lexington Broadcast Services Company, Inc. (later known as "LBS Communications, Inc.") and created "Colex Enterprises," which serviced the distribution of most series by CPT from the 1950s-70s. In October, CPT created "The Television Program Source" with Alan Bennett and former King World president, Bob King. On November 24, 1986, CPT was merged with Embassy Communications to form "Columbia/Embassy Television". This was also the birth of Coca-Cola Telecommunications, when CPT's distribution division merged with the Television Program Source. Coke also regrouped CPT, Embassy Communications, and Merv Griffin Enterprises into "Coca-Cola Television". On December 21, 1987, Coke's entertainment business was sold to Tri-Star Pictures, Inc. for $3.1 billion. Tri-Star Pictures, Inc. was renamed to "Columbia Pictures Entertainment, Inc." (now "Sony Pictures Entertainment"). CCT was shut down ten days later and folded into the reorganized Columbia Pictures Television Distribution. In October 1991, CPT, TriStar Television, and MGE were reorganized into the "Sony Pictures Entertainment Television Group" (a.k.a. "Sony Television Entertainment"). On February 21, 1994, Columbia Pictures Television merged with TriStar Television, forming "Columbia TriStar Television." Columbia Pictures Television Distribution was additionally renamed to "Columbia TriStar Television Distribution". On January 1, 2001, Columbia Pictures Television was folded into Columbia TriStar Television; however, the CPT name was retained in the in-credits of The Young and the Restless until October 2002. Currently the division is known as Sony Pictures Television.

Screen Gems Television[]

1st Logo
(April 1951-1952, December 14, 1957-1974)

Logo: On a light gray background, we see an in-credit text that reads:





  • On Days of Our Lives, the text would read as "A CORDAY PRODUCTIONS, SCREEN GEMS PRESENTATION"
  • On The Jetsons episode "The Coming of Astro", the letter "A" isn't shown next to the words "SCREEN GEMS". (This version can still be seen on Boomerang and Amazon Video on Demand prints.)

FX/SFX: None or the cross-fading. On Days of Our Lives, the text scrolls.

Music/Sounds: The end-title theme from any show.

Availability: Uncommon. It can currently be seen on the first two seasons of The Flintstones on DVD and Blu-ray, as well as in reruns. It was also seen on Top Cat, some first season episodes of The Jetsons, and early seasons of The Ford Theatre.

2nd Logo
(October 2, 1952-August 20, 1955)

Nicknames: "The TV Tube"

Logo: On the same light gray background seen on the last logo, we see a TV tube-like shape that's outlined in dark gray and filled in black. There are about eight stars shining inside (like stars in the sky) around the phrase "A SCREEN GEMS, INC. Presentation" or "A SCREEN GEMS, INC. Production".


  • There is one version where the stars shining are more animated and differently shaped. Also, there isn't any glow surrounding them.
  • Until late 1954-early 1955, the word "Film" is added inside the tube.

FX/SFX: The little stars twinkling.

Music/Sounds: The end title theme of any show or none.

Availability: Ultra rare. It appeared on the first season of Father Knows Best, and is intact on Shout! Factory's DVD release. It was also seen on The Ford Television Theatre and Captain Midnight.

3rd Logo
(August 27, 1955-June 24, 1960)

Nickname: "Torch Lady"

Logo: Like the 1942 version of the 1936 Columbia Pictures logo, we see a lady (Columbia, a representation of the USA) holding a light torch on top a pedestal with a backdrop of clouds over her. The Torch Lady's head and upper body is between the words "SCREEN GEMS" with the letter "A" in Vivaldi font above it and "FILM PRESENTATION" or "FILM PRODUCTION" below it. The byline "TELEVISION SUBSIDIARY: COLUMBIA PICTURES CORPORATION" appears below that.

Trivia: The Torch Lady happens to be Jane Chester Bartholomew, who was discovered by Harry Cohn. (After she left acting in the Sixties, Mrs. Bartholomew became a nursing inspector with the Chicago Board of Health. She passed away in 2012.)

Variant: There is a special variant for the 10th Anniversary of Screen Gems. The logo is the same, except for the text "10ᵀᴴ ANNIVERSARY FILM PROGRAM" (or "FILM PRESENTATION") seen below in place of the standard text.

FX/SFX: The lady's torch "shining".

Music/Sounds/Voice-over: A majestic horn fanfare at the begin/end of some syndicated programs (nicknamed the "Fanfare of Doom"), or the opening theme of the movie or short. Usually, as a closing logo, you will hear the ending theme for whatever show played over it with Harry Cohn announcing, "This has been a Screen Gems Film Production, from the Hollywood studios of Columbia Pictures".

Music/Sounds Variant: When the movie 20 Million Miles to Earth premiered on television, Screen Gems plastered the Columbia Pictures logo, keeping the fanfare intact.

Availability: Rare. This was left intact on the DVDs of seasons 2-4 of Father Knows Best, two episodes of Ranch Party on the Internet Archive, and a few season 1 & most season 2 episodes of Dennis the Menace on Hulu, strangely replacing the next logo on season 2 episodes. Despite the logo blending in with the show itself, C-T has deleted the logo on several occasions. This logo isn't seen on Antenna TV's reruns of Father Knows Best or Dennis the Menace, as both shows instead feature the Colex and/or SPT logos. It was also used on the original late '50s/early '60s 16mm prints of all 190 Stooges shorts that remained in circulation on TV stations until the late 1980s, including 200 non-Stooge Columbia two-reelers released to TV in 1959, many of which can be obtained by private collectors online, although the logo may vary in quality on most shorts. It can be found on a few Stooges shorts released on VHS by RCA/Columbia, including "A Bird in the Head" (closing variant only), "Three Smart Saps", and "I'm a Monkey's Uncle", both of which were last seen on TBS in the early Nineties. Surprisingly, it can be found on a newly transferred 16mm print of "Disorder in the Court" on a Stooges DVD by TGG Direct, as this was a public domain short for many years, with many PD VHS/DVD prints blacking out the opening logo due to copyright issues. It's also very rarely seen on The Huckleberry Hound Show.

Editor's Note: It's mostly a well-liked logo, but some viewers in their youth were put off by the loud and dramatic nature of the fanfare heard on some shows, which has been referred to by some as the "Fanfare of Doom."

4th Logo
(September 3, 1960-July 7, 1963)

Nickname: "Torch Lady II"

Logo: Same as the 1955 logo, excluding the clouds and the additional captions. Only the name "SCREEN GEMS" remains, and the words are smaller and somewhat stretched out, and the words are shown on each side of the lower body and legs.

Trivia: The Torch Lady here is played by the late Amelia Batchelor.


  • An updated version of sorts could be seen as the logo for the "Screen Gems Network", the '90s syndicated package of classic SG, Columbia, Tandem, and ELP shows.
  • A rare color variant of this logo was seen on Hazel.
  • An opening version featured the lettering "COLUMBIA" over a filming studio, with a camera rotating (something similar to the NBC logo) and then it fades to the Screen Gems logo.

FX/SFX: The lady's torch "shining".

Music/Sounds/Voice-over: Usually, the end title theme from any show has played over this with longtime Columbia Pictures president Harry Cohn announcing:

  • "This has been a Screen Gems film presentation (from Columbia Pictures), Herbert B. Leonard, Executive Producer".
  • "This has been a Screen Gems film presentation (from Columbia Pictures), produced by Herbert B. Leonard".
  • "This has been a Screen Gems (film) presentation".
  • "This has been a Screen Gems (film) production".
  • "This has been a Screen Gems film production, from the Hollywood studios of Columbia Pictures". Announced by Hal Gibney.
  • The opening variants would have a fanfare with a different announcer saying, "From Columbia Pictures, a Screen Gems production".

Availability: Rare. Last seen on reruns of Hazel, Dennis the Menace, The Naked City, and Route 66, to name a few. Surprisingly, this has been edited over with or followed by the Columbia TriStar Television Distribution or the Sony Pictures Television logo on some shows recently. Currently seen on some episodes of The Donna Reed Show on Me-TV, and season 1 of Hazel on DVD.

5th Logo
(September 15, 1963-June 25, 1965)

Nicknames: "The Dancing Sticks", "Stars and Spotlights"

Logo: Eleven animated lines "drop down" at the right of the black screen to ascending jazz notes as a swarm of circles scatter near the middle of the left side leaving behind the words "SCREEN GEMS" in a Benguiat Frisky font. (These circles were what one rec.arts.animation post described as the "spotlights". The "stars" may come from the fact that the circles sparkle like stars.) As this happens, the lines shrink somewhat and spread out, filling the right half and shaking slightly back and forth.

Color Variant: When this is shown on color programming, the sticks are pale rainbow colors and the dots are brighter. Also, on one color variant, the dots are rainbow colors as well.

FX/SFX: The lines dropping and shrinking.

Music/Sounds/Voice-over: An 8-note jazzy trumpet fanfare that ascends as the sticks drop in, and ends with a 5-note stinger when the logo finishes. An announcer states that the production is "A Screen Gems presentation" (or "production") near the end.

Music/Sounds/Voice-over Variants:

  • One extremely rare version of the logo does not use an announcer spiel. This was often used on international prints of Screen Gems shows.
  • The final season of Route 66 has "A Screen Gems presentation, Herbert B. Leonard, Executive Producer."

Availability: Ultra rare. It does appear in color without the signature music on the 1999 Columbia Pictures documentary The Lady with the Torch. However, due to replacement with various newer logos, both Sony Pictures Television-related and syndication, this is very hard to find on television. The color logo with no announcer was spotted on extremely rare syndication prints of The Peter Potamus Show. The logo miraculously appeared at the end of Me-TV reruns of the final season of Route 66 (followed by the 1993 CPT logo). Also seen on seasons 3 and 4 of Hazel on DVD courtesy of Shout! Factory.

6th Logo
(September 13, 1965-August 29, 1974)

Nicknames: "The Spiral S", "The Filmstrip S", "The Creepy Screen Gems Logo", "The S From Hell", "The S From Heck (by family friendly logo channels)", "The Spiral S (From Hell)", "Burning S", "Scream Gems", "Attack of the Killer S", "The Personification of All That Is Evil", (For the Hawk version, "Shrill S," "Buzzy S", or "Hawk S".)

Logo: On a yellow background, two red parallelograms come from the top and bottom of the screen, and the upper one is at a distance while the lower is closer. They fly towards each other, and the higher moves forward while the lower backs away. As they do so, they grow in length and wrap around a space where a red dot appears, forming a stylized "S". Under that, the words "SCREEN GEMS" zoom in.

Trivia: The "S" logo was designed and animated by Chermayeff & Geismar, a firm also responsible for the 1986 six-feathered NBC Peacock, the 1984 PBS logo, the 1990-2005 Viacom logo, and the Chase Manhattan Bank logo, among other designs.


  • There's an in-credit logo that's only used on the short-lived series Adventures of the Seaspray, with the text "in association with" and "Screen Gems" in the same font as the credits.
  • Another in-credit version was shown on The Pierre Berton Show with the text "SCREEN GEMS Canada Production" in the same font as the credits.
  • Starting around July 12, 1972, the byline "A DIVISION OF COLUMBIA PICTURES INDUSTRIES, INC." zooms up with "SCREEN GEMS".
  • When shown in black & white, the standard scheme appears to be a light gray screen and black S and words. When shown in color, the standard scheme appears to be a yellow screen, red "S", and black words. The words may or may not have actually been red at one time as well.
  • On some prints of The Partridge Family, the S and the words were both black, attributed by some to film deterioration. However, when the Columbia byline was added, everything was changed to a light gray, and that color change appeared more natural. At the same time, other Screen Gems shows carried the normal color scheme (as did The Partridge Family when it was reran on Hallmark Channel).
  • Several shows in 1970 didn't have the name in bold.
  • There is also a still variant of this logo with the phrase "DISTRIBUTED BY" in small print above "SCREEN GEMS".
  • Another still variant with and without Columbia bylines respectively was seen on the first season of Police Story and the short-lived The Girl with Something Extra.
  • Another variant has the byline appearing after the company logo/text animation stop. This variant was seen on early episodes of the miniseries QB VII.

FX/SFX: The parallelograms wrapping around the dot, "SCREEN GEMS" zooming in.

Music/Sounds: Composed by Eric Siday, the entire score was performed on a Moog modular synthesizer (Siday was one of the first musicians to have one). It consists of six French horn-like notes, followed by two synth-brass triplets with the last note held. In 1970, it was shortened so only three notes came before the tones. This shortened variant was sped-up and was used for the first short-lived Columbia Pictures Television logo.

Music/Sounds Variants:

  • There is a version of the logo where no music is played. This was seen on the 1971 television movie Brian's Song.
  • The latter version had the end theme of Police Story playing over the logo.
  • At least one show, the 1966 Burt Reynolds series Hawk, carried an alternate recording of Siday's music, which had sharper, more "shrill" tones, almost sounding like a loud saxophone.
  • On some first season episodes of I Dream of Jeannie (as seen in syndication in the 1970s and early 1980s), as well as the half hour packaging of Batfink, an alternate trumpet fanfare played over the logo. (This may be the fanfare attributed to Van Alexander, but this is not certain.)
  • In other cases, it used the closing theme of the show or TV movie.
  • Some prints (mainly PAL prints) have the music higher pitched.
  • When ABC reran Bewitched on their daytime schedule in 1968, this logo had the 1963 "Dancing Sticks" music attached to it, probably due to a plastering error.

Availability: Pretty common.

  • This logo has been seen, beautifully restored, on reruns of Bewitched, I Dream of Jeannie, and The Partridge Family on Antenna TV and FETV. Ironically, the DVD versions are not so lucky; except for one B&W episode (episode #22, "How Lucky Can You Get?") of I Dream of Jeannie, the logos were removed on disc, but the short version complete with jingle has been restored starting with the seventh season of Bewitched, as well as the fourth season of The Partridge Family. It is unknown, however, if the 2021 Mill Creek Entertainment complete series Blu-ray set of I Dream of Jeannie retains this.
  • The VHS release The Partridge Family: C'mon Get Happy! also preserves this logo, followed by the 1993 CPT logo. The only other DVDs with this logo are Brian's Song (again, it is unknown if the 2020 SPHE Blu-ray retains this), Bridget Loves Bernie, the 2014 Mill Creek release of Gidget, and the 1974 miniseries QB VII, with theme music over it, plus the Columbia byline.
  • The still variant with the Columbia byline can be found on most episodes of the first season of Police Story on DVD, released by Shout! Factory. It was also shown in an edited form on Fox Family reruns of The Partridge Family and in a sped-up form without music on The Hallmark Channel reruns of Bewitched. A good few episodes of Bewitched when aired on the UK satellite channel Living have this logo, often followed by the Sony Pictures Television International logo.
  • The "Hawk S" can be seen at the Paley Center, and on the 1966 edition of NFL Game of the Week, which can be found on YouTube. This was also seen on a episode of The Monkees on IFC, which was followed by the 1996 CTTD and 2014 Sony/SPT logos.
  • The logo first appeared on the respective third and fifth season premieres of The Farmer's Daughter ("Here Comes the Bride's Father") and Hazel ("Who's in Charge Here?").

Editor's Note: Though this logo has gained somewhat of a cult following, it is notorious for scaring some viewers, even enough to spawn a short documentary in 2010 called The S from Hell.

Columbia Pictures Television[]

1st Logo
(September 4, 1974-August 10, 1976)

Columbia Pictures Television 1974

Nicknames: "CPT Pretzel", "CPT", "The Pretzel"

Logo: Against a red background, the yellow letters "C-P-T" appear one by one as each initial appears on screen and zooming out at the same time. The "T" is in the middle of and on a higher plane than the "C" and "P", which slide upwards diagonally to merge with the "T" to form a stylized logo, which looks like a pretzel. On either side of the logo's stem are the words "COLUMBIA" and "PICTURES", and below that "TELEVISION". Under all that is the byline "A DIVISION OF COLUMBIA PICTURES INDUSTRIES INC." all in white lettering.

Variant: A stretched 16:9 variant was spotted on a Plus7 streaming print of Police Woman.

FX/SFX: The letters appearing, the letters "combining."

Music/Sounds: A little sped-up version of the 1970-1974 Screen Gems theme as the first three opening notes bring forth the three initials in the logo. The rest of the theme plays normally. The first three notes appears to be played faster than on the SG version.

Music/Sounds Variants:

  • On the TV movie The Lindbergh Kidnapping Case, the same music was heard being played on an organ, since the movie took place in the 1930s.
  • Sometimes, the closing theme of the show or TV movie would play over it.

Availability: Rare.

  • It appears on the 2009 DVD of The Story of David, with the closing music playing over it.
  • The first version can be seen on every episode of Born Free on DVD, and was also spotted on an airing of Police Story on Black Starz! (now Starz in Black) years ago. It also appeared on a recent 7mate airing of Police Woman in Australia as well as a Plus7 streaming print of the same episode.
  • The second version has only appeared on the TV movie The Lindbergh Kidnapping Case and was preserved on the VHS version; it is unknown if the 2013 Choice Collection DVD retains it.
  • It was also seen on the short-lived ABC shows Good Heavens, That's My Mama (it was left intact on a few season two episodes on Crackle), The Feather and Father Gang, and Chopper One (the 2016 DVD release of which may have it intact).

Editor's Note: This logo's rough animation and design as well as its use of the "S from Hell" theme were clear placeholders until the "Sunburst" was introduced two years later.

2nd Logo (In-credit Variants)

Logo: Just a simple in-credit from the following:

  • The Young and the Restless (1974-2002): "A COLUMBIA PICTURES TELEVISION PRESENTATION in association with BELL-PHILLIP TELEVISION, INC. (later "BELL DRAMATIC SERIAL CO." in 1984) and CORDAY PRODUCTIONS, INC. Copyright © (year) by (name of CPT company) All Rights Reserved".
  • Dealer's Choice (1974) and The Diamond Head Game (1975): "This has been a Columbia Pictures Television Presentation". The former show had it in the Cooper Black font (later used for one of the font style for Columbia) while the latter used Peignot.
  • The Fun Factory (1976): This has the Fishman-Freer Productions in-credit logo with a copyright notice and below that is "in association with COLUMBIA PICTURES TELEVISION".
  • The Upper Hand (1990-1993): "Produced in association with COLUMBIA PICTURES TELEVISION".
  • Beakman's World (September 18, 1992-1997): We have the Columbia Pictures print logo in white with the words "Columbia Pictures Television Distribution" in Souvenir font (later Bank Gothic MD BT font as "COLUMBIA PICTURES TELEVISION DISTRIBUTION" in 1993) under the Torch Lady. Underneath that is the phrase "In Association With", which was later changed into "IN ASSOCIATION WITH" in all-caps since 1993. September 18, 1992-May 22, 1993, episodes have the 1989-1993 print Torch Lady with the sunburst behind her, while episodes aired between September 18, 1993-1997 have the current Torch Lady with a cloud background placed inside a box.
  • Miracle on I-880 (February 22, 1993): "COLUMBIA PICTURES TELEVISION".


  • On the first season of The Upper Hand, it scrolls in the credits.
  • On The Best of Beakman's World, the phrase, "In Association With" is in the similar font as the show's credits.

FX/SFX: The scrolling or the fade in of the text.

Music/Sounds: The show's closing theme.

Availability: Extremely rare, but it's intact in some variants.

  • It appeared on Days of our Lives, The Young and the Restless, The Upper Hand (a British sitcom based on Who's the Boss?), and Beakman's World.
  • The Dealer's Choice, The Diamond Head Game and The Fun Factory variants are extinct, but the second season of Dealer's Choice did appear when GSN aired episodes back from 1997-1998 and should be retained if it re-airs.
  • The Miracle on I-880 variant is, naturally, intact on its digital video and DVD versions.

3rd Logo (2nd official logo)
(September 21, 1976-September 28, 1982; 1983)

Nicknames: "The Abstract Torch", "The Sunburst", "The Starburst"

Logo: We see a bright torch light appear against a black screen and as it shrinks, it changes into a more "abstract" torch light. The light rays recede from the bottom to about half way with 13 symmetrical white light rays remaining. An orange half circle, or a semicircle, fades in from behind the rays and the words "Columbia Pictures Television" appear under it in a gold Souvenir font. The entire logo then slowly backs away as it fades out.


  • This logo is actually the second half of the 1976 Columbia Pictures movie logo and, aside from a different color designation for the abstract torch, the footage also seems to be played faster than its theatrical counterpart.
  • Depending on the quality of the film print or telecine, the logo would appear slightly red. It should be noted that despite this, orange was the designated color for Columbia's television unit during this era.
  • According to the book Screen Gems: A History of Columbia Pictures Television from Cohn to Coke, 1948-1983 by TV historian Jeb H. Perry, this logo was described as "a graphic representing the glow from The Lady's torch", which is, indeed, what this logo was meant to represent. Mr. Perry, however, made a mistake in this book, in that he said that this logo started in 1974 with the change to Columbia Pictures Television from Screen Gems. The real first logo of CPT was the "Pretzel," as described above.


  • On occasion, the glow around the sunburst varied in brightness or was not visible at all. This was exceptionally the case during the 1980s on network TV.
  • On the second episode of the short-lived series Filthy Rich, titled "Town and Garden," the sunburst appears in-credit as animating on the end-title scene. The CPT logo here, however, does not have its own jingle playing; rather, the show's closing theme plays over it.
  • A black & white version exists.
  • There is also a variant for Pay Television that reads as "COLUMBIA PICTURES PAY TELEVISION" with "PRESENTS" below in the same Cooper Black font from the Columbia Pictures Home Entertainment logo. The closing variant is the same as before, except the words "A" and "PRESENTATION" are seen above and below the CPPTV text respectively.
  • An ultra dark/deteriorated version was spotted on an episode of Fantasy Island. The sunburst appeared as a brownish color and the text was nearly invisible.
  • A still version with "in association with" above the logo appeared on the 1983 TV pilot Johnny Garage.
  • On a HD print of at least one episode of Quark, this logo is shown, but its last couple seconds are cut off by the Sony Pictures Television logo.

FX/SFX: The light rays shrinking and turning into the abstract torch.

Music/Sounds: The television theme is a variation of the theatrical inspirational music, which was also written by Suzanne Ciani. Some people find it appropriate for the company that would be owned by Coca-Cola, as the effects in the song resemble the sound of pouring and fizzing soda.

Music/Sounds Variants:

  • Some syndicated broadcasts of this logo have a shorter version of the music, only playing the second half. This was due in part because of the splice edit method that was commonplace on early film prints of their shows.
  • In exceptional cases, it used the closing theme of the show or TV movie.
  • A silent version appears at the end of the final episode of Barney Miller, "Landmark, Part 3."
  • The Pay TV version has the second half of the theatrical theme.
  • On one episode of the short-lived Mr. Merlin, the theme starts from the second note and is in a higher pitch.

Availability: Very rare.

  • It appears with closing music playing over it on the VHS tape of the 1981 miniseries Family Reunion with Bette Davis, the 1982 TV movie Ivanhoe on DVD, the Vidmark VHS, the SPHE DVD release, Sony Movie Channel airings and digital video prints of the 1982 Tom Selleck TV movie The Shadow Riders (its last known new appearance), and syndicated airings of the post-1980 Barney Miller episodes "Homicide, Part I" and "Contempt, Part I." It appeared with music at the end of the 1977 TV movie A Killing Affair, which was last aired on Encore in 2006. Also seen on an international airing of Fantasy Island, followed by the Sony Pictures Television International logo. On Shout! Factory DVDs of Police Woman, this appears at the end of the third season, and on the fourth-season episode "Sixth Sense." It can also be seen at the end of the Vidmark VHS of The Quest (AKA The Longest Drive).
  • On the original Sony Pictures Home Entertainment release of the first two seasons of T.J. Hooker, every logo has been plastered with that of SPT, but on Mill Creek Entertainment's 2014 reissue, this has been reinstated on the first season. (It is unknown if the 2017 Shout! Factory reissue, as part of their complete series set, does the same.) The logo appears in silence at the end of Barney Miller's series finale "Landmark, Part 3" on its 2011 Shout! Factory DVD print. This logo can be seen on at least one of the two 1977 Father Knows Best reunion specials, last seen on GetTV.
  • Pay Television variant: Extinct. Its only known appearances were before A Chorus Line on HBO.
  • Editor's Note: This logo is a favorite among logo enthusiasts for its nice visual effects and music. The regular variant is also considered to be the first ever logo to have been uploaded onto YouTube, uploaded sometime in 2006. However, the original video appears to have been deleted (the earliest still-available upload also dates to '06).

4th Logo (3rd official logo)
(September 24, 1982-June 18, 1993)

Nicknames: "'80s Torch Lady", "Coke Bottle Torch Lady", "Torch Lady"

Logo: We see the then-current Columbia Pictures logo, the lady holding a light torch on top of a pedestal (Columbia, a representation of the USA), in her 1981-1993 incarnation against the backdrop of clouds. The words "Columbia Pictures" appear on either side of the torch lady, the word "Television" underneath, and underneath that, either the respective company byline, or sometimes nothing at all. The woman's torch "shines" after the music ends, and the words also shine lightly.


  • 1982-1989: "A UNIT OF THE Coca-Cola COMPANY"
  • January 4, 1988-1991: "A Unit of Columbia Pictures Entertainment, Inc."
  • September 1991-1993: Bylineless. This was used during the early era of Sony Pictures Entertainment.

Variants: There are several versions of this logo, namely in bylines, company name, and animation:

  • 1982-1989: Blue clouds/Gold company name, byline is the Coca-Cola one with "Coca-Cola" in its trademarked logo font. An early version has a very tiny Coke byline. Another version has a medium-sized byline. This was first used on Days of our Lives and The Young and the Restless in late 1982 or early 1983. Prior to this, neither show used a Columbia or Screen Gems logo, with the exception of in-credit text on Days of our Lives (see Corday Productions). 1982-1988: Teal clouds/gold company name (alternate with no byline).
  • 1982-1988: Another version features darker clouds.
  • 1983: Alternate gold company name with a medium-sized Coke byline.
  • 1985: Alternate 1982 logo.
  • October 15, 1986: On the TV movie The Canterville Ghost, there is only a static image of the logo with the Coke byline.
  • 1986-1988: On the first season of The Real Ghostbusters, the logo would play until the theme finishes and there would be a freeze frame effect for two seconds and disappear.
  • 1986-1988: Gold company name, smaller Coca-Cola byline with "Coca-Cola" in its trademarked logo font.
  • 1986-1988: Gold company name, normal Coca-Cola byline, dark and muddy Torch Lady, little shining animation.
  • January 4, 1988-1989: Blue clouds/Gold company name, Columbia Pictures Entertainment byline. There was an early distribution logo used on Punky Brewster, which has this logo with "Distributed by" and the CPE byline in a plain looking font.
  • January 4, 1988-October 5, 1991: Purple clouds/Gold company name, Columbia Pictures Entertainment byline. (alternate 1988 network logo).
  • 1988-1990: After the closing credits of The Facts of Life from late episodes from seasons 7 until season 9, the 1987 fanfare would play with the Columbia Pictures Entertainment byline. On Season 9, the last six episodes would play the closing theme over the credits, with CPT logo.
  • January 9, 1988-1989?: Teal clouds/Gold company name, Columbia Pictures Entertainment byline. (alternate 1988 logo, based on the 1982 bylineless logo).
  • January 1989-1992: Blue/Ivory company name as seen on the theatrical version, byline is changed to Columbia Pictures Entertainment (network version, 1989; syndication prints have "Distributed by" on top). If you look closely on the torch, you can see the sunburst slowly dimming out. On some distribution variants, the sunburst fades in, rather than out. Although it stopped general use around September 1991, a few shows, such as the Married... with Children spin-off Vinnie & Bobby, used this until 1992.
  • On the 1988 TV movie Intrigue, the 1988 logo has a gray CPE byline.
  • 1989-1992: There was a phrase "In Association With" that was seen above the blue/ivory logo on Screen Gems shows. This followed either the 1987 or 1989 LBS Communications logo. From 1989-1991, the font was cheaply tacked in white with the black outline around it. This version looped part of the animation, causing the sunburst to fade out, then suddenly reappear. It would also fade in. On Days of our Lives, the logo used the IAW variant in Souvenir font and was used from 1991-1993.
  • October 1991-1992: Blue/gold and purple/gold company name, no byline, animated. This was used during the early years under Sony Pictures Entertainment.
  • Open matte versions of the 1989 and 1991 logos exist, revealing more of the Torch Lady's pedestal. The 1989 version is seen on Dark Avenger and Hardball (the latter has the phrase "in association with" appear below that) while the 1991 version is seen on Christmas on Division Street. On the 1989 version, the text looks bronze rather than gold. Another version, seen on part one of Switched at Birth, Cast the First Stone, and a few episodes of the short-lived 1989 CBS drama A Peaceable Kingdom have no black under the pedestal. The open-matte version was used exclusively on TV movies and nighttime drama shows.
  • September 1991-June 18, 1993: Blue/ivory company name, no byline (network version; syndication prints have "Distributed by" on top from 1991-1992).
  • There is also a B&W rendition of this logo to plaster the Screen Gems logo on classic shows. This version makes a strange appearance on the 1990 RCA/Columbia demo VHS of The Last Picture Show, just before the movie starts.
  • There is a short version of the 1982 logo.
  • Another version of the 1991 logo exists where you can see a few extra steps in the pedestal, but it's not a full open matte logo, like in the Christmas on Division Street version. This can be seen on Revolver.
  • The 1992 TV documentary Titanic: Treasure of the Deep has the 1991 logo fading in.
  • Another fade-in version with the 1989 logo is seen on the 1989 TV pilot Shivers, which aired on the CBS Summer Playhouse.
  • There is another version of the CPE byline where it's in all caps reading "A UNIT OF COLUMBIA PICTURES ENTERTAINMENT, INC." It was used in the 1988 TV movie, Badlands 2005.

FX/SFX: The Lady's torch "shining". The blue/ivory logos would have the name "Columbia Pictures" shining except on the 1988 versions.


  • 1982-1989: A shortened, slightly higher pitched version of the Sunburst music. The 1976 version was also used on this logo for a long version.
  • January 4, 1988-1993: A 6-note brass jingle mixed with twinkles composed by Tim Thompson that was played on a keyboard. Also consider that Columbia's logo editing habits were so sloppy during this era that sometimes this logo was plastered over a Screen Gems or Embassy Communications logo with the original logo's music still intact. No trace of the SG music for this logo has been found since. However, the Embassy theme was retained on a Diff'rent Strokes episode when it was reran on Antenna TV. It may have been retained on Black Starz! (now Starz in Black) reruns.
  • Sometimes, the end theme of the show or TV movie is played over the logo, or none.

Music/Sounds Variants:

  • On Married... with Children: The Most Outrageous Episodes: Volume 2, at the end of the episode "A Man's Castle", the 1993 music from the fifth logo (see below) is heard.
  • There was a warped version with Thompson's music seen on 1980s prints of Screen Gems shows such as Occasional Wife. The theme is also in a higher pitch.
  • There exists a slowed down version of Thompson's music used with the 1988 and 1991 logos. The 1988 version was seen on "Partners in Slime," an episode of The Real Ghostbusters included on the 2005 DVD of Ghostbusters II (perhaps due to the print itself being artificially slowed), while the 1991 version is seen on the 1991 The Young and the Restless Christmas episode.
  • On the DVD print of the season four Punky Brewster episode "The Nun's Story", the short Columbia TriStar Television Distribution theme is used on the 1982 version.
  • On a couple episodes of My Two Dads on the S1 DVD set, the music fades in at the third note.
  • On Switched at Birth and several episodes of Designing Women, the 1988 theme echoes for a long time after the logo fades out.
  • On Intrigue, the 1988 CPT theme is low toned.
  • On the first three episodes of A Peaceable Kingdom, the logo fades out half way before the theme finishes, though the note it fades out on varies by episode.
    • "Pliot": 6th and final note.
    • "Snakebite": 4th note and you can hear a little bit of the 5th note.
    • "Bison": 6th note and you can hear a little bit of the 6th note as it fades out.
  • Some Screen Gems programs had the "S From Hell" logo sloppily plastered with this logo in the early/mid-Eighties, in a way that the first 2-3 notes of the SG jingle would be heard, then the Ciani music would be heard starting in mid-jingle.
  • On the Designing Women episode "The Girlfriend" on the S4 DVD set, the first note sounds higher-pitched.

Availability: Uncommon. Most of these logos have been plastered by the Columbia TriStar and/or Sony Pictures Television logos (or in the case of some Married... with Children reruns on ION Television, no logo is shown at all), but it just might pop up on some older prints of shows.

  • It was previously found on some episodes of Designing Women on TV Guide Network.
  • It was also spotted when Chiller aired reruns of the short-lived series Werewolf. Comedy Central's print of John Waters' movie Hairspray used the 7th variation listed in the opening (w/the '88-'93 jingle).
  • On local syndication, the 1988 "Distributed By" variant shows up on several Good Times episodes, which would also appear on season one on DVD and on Antenna TV, followed by the SPT logo. This can also been seen at the beginning of the Mystery Science Theater 3000 presentation of Village of the Giants as Mike, Crow and Tom Servo were entering the theater.
  • The 1982 variant can be seen on DVD in many places: the 1982 mini-series The Blue and the Gray, the 1985 version of Alice in Wonderland, several S2 episodes of Fantasy Island under license to Shout! Factory (it is unknown if this also applies to Sony's own release of that season), with music on most episodes on the season 4 DVD release of Punky Brewster (followed by the 2004 NBC Universal Television Distribution logo) also from Shout!, and without music (also plastering the Paramount logo) on a 1994 VHS of Road to Bali from Video Treasures.
  • The B&W 1982 variant can be seen on some episodes of The Donna Reed Show on Me-TV, and some movies on Antenna TV including Last Train from Bombay; the B&W 1988 variant can be seen at the end of all episodes on the Bewitched tape "Love That Witch."
  • The 1988-91 variants can be found on Married... with Children: The Most Outrageous Episodes Volumes 1 & 2.
  • The 1989 variant can be seen on the 1991 VHS release of All in the Family: 20th Anniversary Special, Switched at Birth, Cast the First Stone and Guilty of Innocence: The Lenell Geter Story (which plasters the Embassy logo).
  • The 1988 variant can also be seen on plenty of episodes from the first two seasons of My Two Dads, released on DVD by Shout! Factory under SPHE's license. The 1991 variant can be seen on some season two episodes as well.
  • Plus, the 1988 variant was seen on most 1980 episodes of Barney Miller, mostly in local syndication (though it would sometimes appear on WGN America airings of those episodes). It was also seen on the first few episodes of the short-lived series Phenom, while later episodes used the next logo.
  • The 1988 variant is also seen on the VHS releases of Weekend War and Intrigue.
  • The 1982 variant can be found on some S1 episodes of Designing Women on DVD, while the 1988-91 variants can be seen on plenty of episodes from its first six seasons.
  • The 1991 blue/ivory open matte variant is seen on Christmas on Division Street, which was released on VHS by Odyssey Video.
  • A bylineless 1982 version was spotted on an episode of T.J. Hooker that aired on Australian digital Channel 7mate and can also be seen on Cloo, Universal HD, and the French Belgium channel "La Une" (in a widescreen variant and oddly with the 1993 CPT theme on the latter channel). This variant is also seen on Shout! Factory's DVD release of the fourth season of Hart to Hart.
  • This logo was also seen on a few existing syndicated prints of season 1 episodes of That's My Mama, plastering the 1st logo ever since the 1980s.
  • The Revolver variant can be found on its VHS release and appears on Sony Movie Channel airings.
  • The bylineless gold version is retained on the front of The Producers on This TV (but not on GetTV) and TCM airings of the film The Oscar.
  • The 1988 CPTD logo was seen on one episode of The Burns & Allen Show, as well as the season six Diff'rent Strokes episode "The Moonlighter," both on Antenna TV.
  • The 1991 logo is retained on the VHS release of Titanic: Treasure of the Deep, as well as old cable prints of Stripes and Maximum Overdrive, replacing the De Laurentiis Entertainment Group (DEG) logo, and was also kept intact on a CTV airing of I Still Dream of Jeannie. The "Distributed by" variant can be found on the Dutch Arrow Film VHS release of Dark Avenger.
  • This logo, with the CPE byline, was seen on the first season and the first few episodes of the second season of Parker Lewis Can't Lose on FamilyNet and (surprisingly) Crackle, while later second season episodes and early third season episodes use the bylineless version. (Later third season episodes use the next logo.)
  • The bylineless, open-matte version of the 1982 logo is seen on T.J. Hooker episodes on Crackle, Sony's online streaming service.
  • It was also seen at the end of a December 2000 Sci-Fi Channel broadcast of The Hidden, and may also appear on seasons 3-5 of T.J. Hooker on DVD, under license to Shout! Factory.

Editor's Note: It's the end bit of the 1981 movie logo albeit slightly modified, which was still satisfactory enough for the Eighties. This was the first logo to replace the Embassy logo starting in 1988 on shows from Embassy. Many shows stopped using this logo in 1992, although The Young and the Restless and Days of Our Lives continued to use the blue/ivory logo until 1993. This was also used for the first season of The Larry Sanders Show, which premiered in August 1992.

5th Logo (4th official logo)
(August 15, 1992-January 1, 2001)

Nicknames: "'90s Torch Lady", "Majestic Torch Lady", "Torch Lady II"

Logo: We see a still picture of a brand new Columbia Torch Lady (designed by Michael J. Deas, and modeled by Louisiana homemaker, Jenny Joseph; some think it resembles actress Annette Benning) holding a light torch on top of a new pedestal against the background of clouds with dark blue skies around it. The word "COLUMBIA" appears in giant chiseled silver letters behind her at the very top, similar to the classic Columbia Pictures logo from 1936-1976. Underneath the lady are the words "COLUMBIA PICTURES TELEVISION", or until 1996, "COLUMBIA PICTURES TELEVISION DISTRIBUTION" (in Bank Gothic MD BT font) and underneath that is the byline "a SONY PICTURES ENTERTAINMENT company". It should be noted that movies did not begin using this new Torch Lady until 1993 when a animated version was created by Synthespian Studios, as well.

Trivia: The painting was originally made in 1991 and made its debut in 1992.


  • On a Jeopardy! episode aired on December 23, 1993, the logo was seen on a "Video Daily Double" clue. The logo appears to be close-up, there is no text below the Torch Lady and the "COLUMBIA" text is not there.
  • There is a black & white variation that was used to plaster Screen Gems logos on classic B&W shows.
  • On the TV movie pilot of Dark Skies, "The Awakening," the name and the byline fade out at the same time as the logo.
  • On Beakman's World, a CGI toy rocket flies around the Torch Lady.
  • An open-matte version can be seen on the Parker Lewis Can't Lose season 3 episodes, "Beauty and the Kube" and "Hungry Heart."
  • A rare 1.37:1 "academy" version exists.

FX/SFX: None. Except when it fades out, where the name along with the byline below dims out and later fades out completely.

Music/Sounds: Here are the main versions:

  • 1992-1994: The 1988 music from the previous logo. The Young and the Restless and Days of Our Lives were the two series who used this starting in mid-Spring 1993 and used it until New Years Eve 1993.
  • September 1993-2001: A 6-note majestic tune is heard; full of brass instruments composed by Dave Grusin.
  • 1994-2001: A re-composed version of the Grusin theme that's slightly re-arranged.

Music/Sounds Variants:

  • Sometimes, the ending theme of the show plays over it. An example is ONE Australia reruns of Walker, Texas Ranger.
  • There is a silent version of the logo.
  • A sped-up NTSC pitched tone version exists usually for early PAL prints.
  • A high-toned version exists usually for PAL prints.
  • On The Greatest '70s Cop Shows, the short Columbia TriStar Television Distribution theme was heard on the first regular episode of Police Woman (and it was also heard on Gidget Grows Up), and the long Columbia TriStar Television Distribution theme was heard on the pilot of Starsky & Hutch. This was the fact that it was a rushed job due to horrible plastering. The short CTTD theme is also heard on The Jeff Foxworthy Show on TBS and The Dana Carvey Show episode "The Mug Root Beer Dana Carvey Show" on DVD.
  • The short-lived 1997 series Ivanhoe used the second half of this logo in black & white.
  • For the black & white and color versions of CPTD as well as the color version of CPT on some episodes of Charlie's Angels, a warped version of the 1993 theme was sometimes used.
  • On syndicated reruns of the Early Edition episode "Red Fellas," the 1993 TriStar Television logo music is heard. This was probably due to a plaster error.
  • On the short-lived series Dark Skies starting on episode 2, "Moving Targets," as well as some episodes of Charlie's Angels and the 1996 TV movie Sudden Terror: The Hijacking of Bus #17, the Columbia TriStar Television theme is used.
  • On the CTHE DVD print of the season one Charlie's Angels episode "Night of the Strangler," the final note of the 1993 CPT theme echoes. (It is unknown if this is also the case for the Mill Creek DVD or Blu-ray versions of the same episode, or if the logo is even intact there.)
  • On a 1990s print of the TV movie To Kill a Cop, the 1976 theme is used.
  • It is rumored that some episodes of Mary Hartman, Mary Hartman have this logo paired with the elusive TAT Communications jingle (most likely due to rushed plastering).
  • On a Petersburg-Channel 5 airing of the TV movie Goliath Awaits, the 1992 theme starts from the second note.
  • On a DVD print of The Real Ghostbusters episode "Captain Steel Saves the Day," the Coca-Cola Telecommunications theme is heard due to bad plastering.
  • On a 2006 Channel 5 UK airing of the 1976 TV movie The Boy in the Plastic Bubble, the first 3 notes of the 1976 theme from the previous logos in PAL pitched tone playing faintly in the background before the correct 1993 theme in NTSC pitched tone appears, due to plastering over the older logo.

Availability: Surprisingly pretty common, as it has managed to pop up on several current prints of Sony series and movies even with the Sony Pictures Television logo plastering over logos.

  • The Young and the Restless and Days of Our Lives did not begin using this logo until 1993.
  • On local stations, it can be spotted quite frequently on Good Times.
  • The CPTD logo can also be found on TCM, the season 5 Good Times episode "The Evans Get Involved: Part I" on TV One, the end of The Producers on This TV, and at the front of Nevada Smith on GetTV.
  • The black & white version appeared on I Dream of Jeannie and Bewitched; it was also spotted at the beginning of Darling on TCM and some episodes of Dennis the Menace on Hulu (plastering the 1955 and 1960 Screen Gems logos).
  • This logo is available on DVD releases of the first seasons of All in the Family, Good Times, The Jeffersons, Charlie's Angels, and Sanford and Son (though it strangely doesn't appear on the Sanford and Son episodes "Coffins for Sale" and "TV or Not TV," and some Good Times episodes, such as "Black Jesus," instead use the 1988 logo as previously mentioned).
  • This logo is also seen on the original three DVD volume releases of The Real Ghostbusters, released by Sony in 2005. It is also seen on volume 1 of Married... with Children: The Most Outrageous Episodes and The Greatest '70s Cop Shows on DVD.
  • The version with the 1988 music can be seen on the VHS release of Married... with Children: It's a Bundyful Life, The Best of Beakman's World on VHS and DVD, at the start of the 1993 Columbia House release Bewitched: Love That Witch, on most episodes of the final season of Designing Women on DVD (a handful of episodes have the 1993 version, and the series finale "Gone with a Whim" has the SPT logo), and on the DVD prints of four season one episodes of Sanford and Son ("We Were Robbed," "A Pad for Lamont," "The Great Sanford Siege," and "The Piano Movers").
  • It also appeared at the end of The Partridge Family: C'mon Get Happy! on VHS--it's also likely preserved on other VHS tapes in the Screen Gems TV series. Weirdly on some episodes of Bewitched, this logo is seen in-between the 1965 Screen Gems logo and the Sony Pictures Television logo.
  • It's also seen at the end of The Graduate on Antenna TV. The CPT logo is present on several season 5 episodes of Barney Miller on the Shout! Factory DVD set, following the Four D Productions logo.
  • The logo was also spotted on an airing of Just You and Me, Kid on Antenna TV, plastering the first few seconds of the 1976 Columbia film logo.
  • It was also spotted on some episodes of The Jeff Foxworthy Show on TBS, surprisingly not falling victim to TBS's style of split-screen credits. However, it's intact on Mill Creek's 2015 reissue.
  • This was also seen at the beginning of one airing of The Natural on Antenna TV.
  • A small handful of episodes of The Jeffersons were presumed to have this logo on the 2014 Mill Creek Entertainment release of season 2, with both the 1988 and the 1993 music, until it was discovered that every episode ends on SPT.
  • It also appeared at the beginning of airings of Moscow in the Hudson on This TV, which is actually quite odd. It can also be seen on Crackle prints of episodes of The Steve Harvey Show, The Critic, and season 3 of The Real Ghostbusters.
  • It's also retained on DVD releases of the first four seasons of Walker, Texas Ranger, but on the fifth season, it's plastered in favor of the CBS Paramount Network Television "Wallpaper" logo, and seasons 6-8 use the CBS Television Distribution logo. The DVD releases of season two (and presumably season three) of Police Story and season four of Police Woman have this as well.
  • On recent prints of the TV movie Goliath Awaits, it appears at both ends.

Editor's Note: A still logo of a painting that still looks exquisite even to this day, supplemented with some grand fanfares. It should be noted that this appeared almost a year before movies began using this new Torch Lady in 1993.


Copyright Stamps: Here is some information about the copyright stamps on the CPT series and TV movies:

  • 1974-1984: Copyright © (year) by Columbia Pictures Television, A division of Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc.
  • 1984-1993: Copyright © (year) by Columbia Pictures Television, A division of CPT Holdings, Inc.
  • 1986-1987: Copyright © (year) Columbia Pictures Television (Used on the first two seasons of The Real Ghostbusters)
  • 1987-1988: COPYRIGHT © (year) BY TRI-STAR TELEVISION, A DIVISION OF TRI-STAR PICTURES, INC. (Used on 1988 aired episodes of My Two Dads, Buck James, and Werewolf, during S1)
  • 1987-1988: COPYRIGHT© (year) EMBASSY COMMUNICATIONS (Used on 1988 aired episodes of produced series by Embassy Communications)
  • 1988-1997: COPYRIGHT © (year) ELP COMMUNICATIONS (Used for Embassy's productions when it was renamed ELP Communications and went under CPT)
  • 1988-: Copyright © (year) CPT Holdings, Inc.
  • 1988-1998, 1999-2001?: Copyright © (year) Columbia Pictures Television, Inc.
  • 1988: Copyright © (year) Weekend Adventure Company (Used on the TV movie Weekend War)
  • 1991-1992: Copyright © (numeric year Roman numeric year) The Weinberger Company (Used on Baby Talk)
  • 1991: Copyright © (year) by HIGHER GROUND PRODUCTIONS (CANADA), INC. (Used on the TV movie Christmas on Division Street)
  • 1992-1993: COPYRIGHT © (numeric year Roman numeric year) ELP COMMUNICATIONS (Used on the 1st season of Beakman's World)
  • 1993: Copyright © (year) CPT/ABCP VENTURES (Used on Moon Over Miami)
  • 1998-1999: Copyright © (year) Global Entertainment Productions GmbH & Company Medien KG

Final Note: Columbia TriStar Television took over for then-current shows formerly ending with this logo by 2001, though the copyright holder at the end of each show would credit "Columbia Pictures Television, Inc." or "CPT Holdings, Inc." until 2002, shortly after the debut of the Sony Pictures Television logo. However, "CPT Holdings, Inc." is still being used today as the copyright holder of The Young and the Restless and old programs from their television library such as What's Happening!!, the Sony-owned Pyramid incarnations, and others, and would also be used on foreign shows by Sony Pictures Television International from 2002-2010.